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8.1 Promotion of marathi and sanskrit ( Veer shivaji )

8.1 Promotion of marathi and sanskrit
            ( Veer shivaji )

Though Persian was a common courtly language in the region, Shivaji replaced it with Marathi in his own court, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions.The house of Shivaji was well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye, who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji continued this Sanskrit promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature with terms such as nyayadhish, and senapat, and commissioned the political treatise Rajyavyavahar Kosh. His rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.

7.1 The Marathas after shivaji (veer shivaji)

7.1 The Marathas after shivaji .(veer shivaji)

Shivaji died in 1680, leaving behind a state always at odds with the Mughals. Soon after Shivaji's death, the Mughals attempted to invade it, but could not subdue the Marathas and it resulted in War of 27 years from 1681 to 1707 ending in the defeat for the Mughals. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb during the War of 27 years. After the latter's death, his successor released Shahu. After s brief power struggle over succession with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu ruled the Maratha Empire from 1707 to 1749. During this period, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath Bhat and later his descendants as the Peshwas or the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire. After the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, the empire expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar(modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in the north, and Bengal and Andaman Islands in the east. I…

7. Death and Succession

7. Death and Succession

The question of Shivaji's heir-apparent was complicated by the misbehaviour of his eldest son Sambhaji, who was irresponsible and addicted to sensual pleasures. Unable to curb this, Shivaji confined his son to Panhala in 1678, only to have the prince escape with his wife and defect to the Mughals for a year. Sambhaji then returned home, unrepentant, and was again confined to Panhala. In late March 1680, Shivaji fell ill with fever and dysentery, dying around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of on the eve of Hanuman Jayanti. Rumours followed his death, with Muslims opining he had died of a curse from Jan Muhammad of Jalna, and some Marathas whispering that his second wife, Soyarabai, had poisoned him so that his crown might pass to her 10-year-old son Rajaram. After Shivaji's death, the widowed Soyarabai made plans with various ministers of the administration to crown her son Rajaram rather than her prodigal stepson Sambhaji. On 21 April 1680, ten-year-old Rajar…

6. Conquest in southern India. ( veer shivaji )

6. Conquest in southern India. ( veer shivaji )

Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh (October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675),Karwar (mid-year), and Kolhapur (July).In November the Maratha navy skirmished with the Siddis of Janjira, and in early 1676 Peshwa Pingale, en route to Surat, engaged the Raja of Ramnagar in battle.Shivaji raided Athani in March 1676, and by year's end besieged Belgaum and Vayem Rayim in modern-day northern Karnataka. At the end of 1676, Shivaji launched a wave of conquests in southern India, with a massive force of 30,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry.He captured the Adilshahi forts at Vellore and Gingee, in modern-day Tamil Nadu. In the run-up to this expedition Shivaji appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotism, that the Deccan or Southern India was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders. His appeal was somewhat successful and he entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golconda sultan…

5. Coronation .( Veer shivaji )

5.   Coronation .( Veer shivaji ) 

Shivaji had acquired extensive lands and wealth through his campaigns, but lacking a formal title was still technically a Mughal zamindar or the son of an Adilshahi jagirdar, with no legal basis to rule his de facto domain. A kingly title could address this, and also prevent any challenges by other Maratha leaders, to whom he was technically equal; it would also provide the Hindu Marathas with a fellow Hindu sovereign in a region otherwise ruled by Muslims. Shivaji was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674.In the Hindu calendar it was on the 13th day (trayodashi) of the first fortnight of the month of Jyeshtha in the year 1596. Pandit Gaga Bhatt officiated, holding a gold vessel filled with the seven sacred waters of the rivers Yamuna, Indus, Ganges, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri over Shivaji's head, and chanted the coronation mantras. After the ablution, Shivaji bowed before Jijabai and touched her feet. Near…

4.1 Dealings with the English . ( Veer Shivaji )

4.1 Dealings with the English .                             ( Veer Shivaji )

In October 1670, Shivaji sent his forces to harass the British at Bombay; as they had refused to sell him war material, his forces blocked Bombay's woodcutting parties. In September 1671, Shivaji sent an ambassador to Bombay, again seeking material, this time for the fight against Danda-Rajpuri; the British had misgivings of the advantages Shivaji would gain from this conquest, but also did not want to lose any chance of receiving compensation for his looting their factories at Rajapur. The British sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustick to treat with Shivaji, but negotiations failed over the issue of the Rajapur indemnity. Numerous exchanges of envoys followed over the coming years, with some agreement as to the arms issues in 1674, but Shivaji was never to pay the Rajpur indemnity before his death, and the factory there dissolved at the end of 1682.

4.2 . Battle of Nesari .( veer shivaji )

4.2 . Battle of Nesari .( veer shivaji )

In 1674, Prataprao Gujar, the then commander-in chief of the Maratha forces, was sent to push back the invading force led by the Adilshahi general, Bahlol Khan. Prataprao's forces defeated and captured the opposing general in the battle, after cutting-off their water supply by encircling a strategic lake, which prompted Bahlol Khan to sue for peace. In spite of Shivaji's specific warnings against doing so Prataprao released Bahlol Khan, who started preparing for a fresh invasion. Shivaji sent a displeased letter to Prataprao, refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. In the ensuing days, Shivaji learnt of Bahlol Khan having camped with 15,000 force at Nesari near Kolhapur. Not wanting to risk losing his much smaller Maratha force entirely, Prataprao and six of his sardars attacked in a suicide mission, buying time for Anandrao Mohite to withdraw the remainder of the army to safety. The Marathas avenged the death of Pratapr…

4 Reconquest .( Veer Shivaji )

4  Reconquest .( Veer Shivaji )

After Shivaji's escape, hostilities ebbed and a treaty lasted until the end of 1670, when Shivaji launched a major offensive against Mughals, and in a span of four months recovered a major portion of the territories surrendered to Mughals. During this phase, Tanaji Malusare won the fort of Sinhgad in the Battle of Sinhagad on 4 Feb 1670, dying in the process. Shivaji sacked Surat for second time in 1670; while he was returning from Surat, Mughals under Daud Khan tried to intercept him, but were defeated in the Battle of Vani-Dindori near present-day Nashik .

3.3 Arrest in Agra and escape. (veer shivaji. )

3.3 Arrest in Agra and escape
( Veer shivaji )

In 1666, Aurangzeb invited Shivaji to Agra, along with his nine-year-old son Sambhaji. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Kandahar, now in Afghanistan, to consolidate the Mughal empire's northwestern frontier. However, in the court, on 12 May 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdārs (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offence and stormed out of court,and was promptly placed under house arrest under the watch of Faulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra. Shivaji's spies informed him that Aurangzeb planned to move Shivaji to Raja Vitthaldas' haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier, so Shivaji planned his escape. Shivaji feigned severe illness and requested to send most of his contingent back to the Deccan, thereby ensuring the safety of his army and deceiving Aurangzeb. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, faki…

3.2 Treaty of purandar. ( Veer shivaji )

3.2 Treaty of purandar ( Veer Shivaji )

Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I with an army numbering around 150,000 to defeat Shivaji. Jai Singh's forces made significant gains and captured many Maratha forts, forcing Shivaji to come to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and men. In the Treaty of Purandar, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay compensation of 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal sardar, serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb and fight alongside the Mughals against Bijapur.He actually fought alongside Jai Singh's against Bijapur's for a few months. One of Shivaji's commander, Netaji Palkar joined the Mughals, was rewarded very well for his bravery, converted to Islam, changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes. He returned to Shivaji's service …

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Maharani Padmavati and all women decided to take jawahar (part 10)

Maharani Padmavati and all women decided to take jawahar

After getting information about the killing of King Raval Ratna Singh in the war and the ending of Chittor army, Rani Padmavati had realized that nowadays Alauddin Khilji's army will take the civilian casualties of men and children as soon as they enter the fort. And oppressing women by making them slaves. Therefore, according to the Rajputana rituals, all women decided to make them jewelers.

To perform the custom of Jauhar, a large fire trunk was built between the town and Rani Padmavati and other women sacrificed their lives after one and a woman jumped into that blazing pyre.

The name of Raja Raval Ratna Singh, Rani and Padmavati, the army, husband Gaura and the name of Badal has been written in the golden letters in history and the army of Chittor is remembered with respect to those who have their lives in order to protect their land. Sacrificed

3.1 Attack on Shaista Khan . { Veer Shivaji }

3.1 Attack on Shaista Khan . { Veer Shivaji }

Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with an army numbering over 150,000 along with a powerful artillery division in January 1660 to attack Shivaji in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar. Shaista Khan, with his better-equipped and -provisioned army of 300,000 seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan, besieging it for a month and a half until breaching the walls. Shaista Khan pressed his advantage of having a larger, better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha territory, seizing the city of Pune and establishing his residence at Shivaji's palace of Lal Mahal. In April 1663, Shivaji launched a surprise attack on Shaista Khan in Pune; accounts of the story differ in the popular imagination, but there is some agreement that Shivaji and band of some 200 followers infiltrated Pune, using a wedding procession as cover. They…

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3. Clash with the Mughals {veer shivaji }

3. Clash with the Mughals 
           { Veer shivaji }

Up until 1657, Shivaji maintained peaceful 

relations with the Mughal Empire. Shivaji offered 

his assistance to Aurangzeb in conquering Bijapur

 and in return, he was assured of the formal 

recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and 

villages under his possession.Shivaji's 

confrontations with the Mughals began in March 

1657, when two of Shivaji's officers raided the 

Mughal territory near Ahmednagar.This was 

followed by raids in Junnar, with Shivaji carrying 

off 300,000 hun in cash and 200 horses.Aurangzeb

responded to the raids by sending Nasiri Khan, 

who defeated the forces of Shivaji at Ahmednagar.

 However, the countermeasures were interrupted 

by the rainy season and the battle of succession for

 the Mughal throne following the illness of Shah 


Rani padmavati { Attack of Allauddin Khilji }. ( Part 9. )

Attack of Allauddin Khilji

Because of his failure, Badshah Alauddin Khilji Jhalya got up, he 

attacked Chittor Fort at the same time, but he could not enter that 

impenetrable fort. Then they decided to wait till the end of the food 
and other essential things in the fort. Within days, the food supply 

was eliminated inside the fort and the residents of the fort were 

forced to come out of the security of the fort and be killed. At the 

end, Rawal Ratna Singh opened the door and decided to fight the 

battle of R-cross and opened the fort. Alauddin Khilji and his army 

immediately opened the door and started attacking immediately 

after the door opened. In this fierce battle, mighty King Raval 

Ratna Singh received the momentum and lost his entire army. 

Allauddin Khilji killed all Rajput warriors one by one and made 

preparations to enter inside the fort.