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8.1 Promotion of marathi and sanskrit ( Veer shivaji )

8.1 Promotion of marathi and sanskrit
            ( Veer shivaji )



Though Persian was a common courtly language in the region, Shivaji replaced it with Marathi in his own court, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions.The house of Shivaji was well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye, who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji continued this Sanskrit promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature with terms such as nyayadhish, and senapat, and commissioned the political treatise Rajyavyavahar Kosh. His rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.

6. Conquest in southern India. ( veer shivaji )

6. Conquest in southern India. ( veer shivaji )





Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh (October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675),Karwar (mid-year), and Kolhapur (July).In November the Maratha navy skirmished with the Siddis of Janjira, and in early 1676 Peshwa Pingale, en route to Surat, engaged the Raja of Ramnagar in battle.Shivaji raided Athani in March 1676, and by year's end besieged Belgaum and Vayem Rayim in modern-day northern Karnataka. At the end of 1676, Shivaji launched a wave of conquests in southern India, with a massive force of 30,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry.He captured the Adilshahi forts at Vellore and Gingee, in modern-day Tamil Nadu. In the run-up to this expedition Shivaji appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotism, that the Deccan or Southern India was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders. His appeal was somewhat successful and he entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golconda sultanate that covered the eastern Deccan. Shivají's conquests in the south proved quite crucial during future wars; Gingee served as Maratha capital for nine years during the Maratha War of Independence. Shivaji intended to reconcile with his half-brother Venkoji (Ekoji I), Shahaji's son by his second wife, Tukabai (née Mohite), who ruled Thanjavur (Tanjore) after Shahaji. The initially promising negotiations were unsuccessful, so whilst returning to Raigad Shivaji defeated his half-brother's army on 26 November 1677 and seized most of his possessions in the Mysore plateau. Venkoji's wife Dipa Bai, whom Shivaji deeply respected, took up new negotiations with Shivaji, and also convinced her husband to distance himself from Muslim advisors. In the end Shivaji consented to turn over to her and her female descendants many of the properties he had seized, with Venkoji consenting to a number of conditions for the proper administration of the territories and maintenance of Shivaji's future Memorial (Samadhi).
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VEER SHIVAAJI SUMMARY

VEER SHIVAAJI  (SUMMARY)



shivaji bhonsle (marathi)- छत्रपति शिवाजीराजे भोसले ;(1627/1630 -3 April 1680) was an indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the maratha Empire in 1674,he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati (Monarch) of his realm at Raigad. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations. He innovated military tactics, pioneering the guerrilla warfare methods (Shiva sutra of ganimi kava),which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies. From a small contingent of 2000 soldiers inherited from his father, shivaji created a force of 100,000 soldiers; he built and restored strategically located forts both inland and coastal to safeguard his territory. He revi…

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भारतीय इतिहास के पन्नों  में  अत्यंत  सुंदर और साहसी रानी ;रानी पद्मावती का उल्लेख है रानी पद्मावती को  रानी पद्मनी के नाम से भी जाना जाता है रानी पद्मावती के पिता सिंघल प्रांत (श्रीलंका )के राजा थे ! 
उनका नाम गंधर्वसेन था ! और उनकी माता का नाम चंपावती था ! पद्मावती बाल्य काल से ही दिखने में अत्यंत ही सुन्दर और आकर्षक थी !उनके माता -पिता नें उन्हें बड़े लाड प्यार से बड़ा किया था ! कहा जाता है की बचपन में पद्मावती के पास एक बोलता तोता था जिसका नाम हीरामणि रखा गया  था !



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गंधर्वसेन के राज दरबार में लगी राजा -महाराजाओ की भीड़ में एक छोटे से राज्य का पराक्रमी राजा मल्खान सिंह भी आया था ! उसी स्वयवर में विवाहित राजा रावल रत्न सिंह भी मौजूद थे उन्होंने मल्खान सिंह को स्वयंवर में परास्त कर के रानी पद्मावती पर अपना अधिकार सिध्द किया और उनसे धूम -धाम से विवाह रचा लिया !इस त…