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8.1 Promotion of marathi and sanskrit ( Veer shivaji )

8.1 Promotion of marathi and sanskrit
            ( Veer shivaji )



Though Persian was a common courtly language in the region, Shivaji replaced it with Marathi in his own court, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions.The house of Shivaji was well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye, who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji continued this Sanskrit promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature with terms such as nyayadhish, and senapat, and commissioned the political treatise Rajyavyavahar Kosh. His rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.

7.1 The Marathas after shivaji (veer shivaji)

7.1 The Marathas after shivaji .(veer shivaji)


Shivaji died in 1680, leaving behind a state always at odds with the Mughals. Soon after Shivaji's death, the Mughals attempted to invade it, but could not subdue the Marathas and it resulted in War of 27 years from 1681 to 1707 ending in the defeat for the Mughals. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb during the War of 27 years. After the latter's death, his successor released Shahu. After s brief power struggle over succession with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu ruled the Maratha Empire from 1707 to 1749. During this period, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath Bhat and later his descendants as the Peshwas or the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire. After the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, the empire expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar(modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in the north, and Bengal and Andaman Islands in the east. In 1761, the Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat to Ahmed Shah Abdali of the Afghan Durrani Empire which halted their imperial expansion in North western India. Ten years after Panipat, young Madhavrao Peshwa reinstated the Maratha authority over North India. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, he gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, which created a confederacy of Maratha states. They became known as Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior and Ujjain, Bhonsales of Nagpur. In 1775, the British East India Company intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. The Marathas remained the preeminent power in India until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha wars (1805–1818), which left the British East India Company in control of most of India.
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VEER SHIVAAJI SUMMARY

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shivaji bhonsle (marathi)- छत्रपति शिवाजीराजे भोसले ;(1627/1630 -3 April 1680) was an indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the maratha Empire in 1674,he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati (Monarch) of his realm at Raigad. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations. He innovated military tactics, pioneering the guerrilla warfare methods (Shiva sutra of ganimi kava),which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies. From a small contingent of 2000 soldiers inherited from his father, shivaji created a force of 100,000 soldiers; he built and restored strategically located forts both inland and coastal to safeguard his territory. He revi…

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रानी पद्मावती का परिचय
भारतीय इतिहास के पन्नों  में  अत्यंत  सुंदर और साहसी रानी ;रानी पद्मावती का उल्लेख है रानी पद्मावती को  रानी पद्मनी के नाम से भी जाना जाता है रानी पद्मावती के पिता सिंघल प्रांत (श्रीलंका )के राजा थे ! 
उनका नाम गंधर्वसेन था ! और उनकी माता का नाम चंपावती था ! पद्मावती बाल्य काल से ही दिखने में अत्यंत ही सुन्दर और आकर्षक थी !उनके माता -पिता नें उन्हें बड़े लाड प्यार से बड़ा किया था ! कहा जाता है की बचपन में पद्मावती के पास एक बोलता तोता था जिसका नाम हीरामणि रखा गया  था !



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रानी पद्मावती का स्वयंवर महाराज गंधर्वसेन ने अपनी पुत्री पद्मावती के विवाह के लिए उनका स्वयंवर रचाया था जिसमे भाग लेने के लिए भारत के अलग -अलग हिन्दू राज्यों के राजा-महाराजा आये थे ! 
गंधर्वसेन के राज दरबार में लगी राजा -महाराजाओ की भीड़ में एक छोटे से राज्य का पराक्रमी राजा मल्खान सिंह भी आया था ! उसी स्वयवर में विवाहित राजा रावल रत्न सिंह भी मौजूद थे उन्होंने मल्खान सिंह को स्वयंवर में परास्त कर के रानी पद्मावती पर अपना अधिकार सिध्द किया और उनसे धूम -धाम से विवाह रचा लिया !इस त…